Tmux

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Tmux is de opvolger van Screen. Het bied veel meer opties dan Screen en zit meer en meer gebruik in dagelijks unix beheer. Tmux is een Terminal Multiplexer.

Wat is een terminal multiplexer?
Het staat je toe om gemakkelijk een aantal programma's en shells te draaien binnen een enkele terminal.
Door te 'detachen' blijven alle sessies op en kan je je werk op een later tijdstip zo verder aanvangen.

https://tmux.github.io/ss-small-tmux1.png https://tmux.github.io/ss-small-tmux2.png

TMux on Github


Tmux shortcuts & cheatsheet

Basic

start new:

   tmux

start new with session name:

   tmux new -s myname

attach:

   tmux a  #  (or at, or attach)

attach to named:

   tmux a -t myname

list sessions:

   tmux ls

<a name="killSessions"></a>kill session:

   tmux kill-session -t myname

<a name="killAllSessions"></a>Kill all the tmux sessions:

   tmux ls | grep : | cut -d. -f1 | awk '{print substr($1, 0, length($1)-1)}' | xargs kill

In tmux, hit the prefix `ctrl+b` (my modified prefix is ctrl+a) and then:

Sessions:

   :new<CR>  new session
   s  list sessions
   $  name session
    1. <a name="WindowsTabs"></a>Windows (tabs)
   c  create window
   w  list windows
   n  next window
   p  previous window
   f  find window
   ,  name window
   &  kill window
    1. <a name="PanesSplits"></a>Panes (splits)
   %  vertical split
   "  horizontal split
   
   o  swap panes
   q  show pane numbers
   x  kill pane
   +  break pane into window (e.g. to select text by mouse to copy)
   -  restore pane from window
   ⍽  space - toggle between layouts
   <prefix> q (Show pane numbers, when the numbers show up type the key to goto that pane)
   <prefix> { (Move the current pane left)
   <prefix> } (Move the current pane right)
   <prefix> z toggle pane zoom
    1. <a name="syncPanes"></a>Sync Panes

You can do this by switching to the appropriate window, typing your Tmux prefix (commonly Ctrl-B or Ctrl-A) and then a colon to bring up a Tmux command line, and typing:

```

setw synchronize-panes

```

You can optionally add on or off to specify which state you want; otherwise the option is simply toggled. This option is specific to one window, so it won’t change the way your other sessions or windows operate. When you’re done, toggle it off again by repeating the command. [tip source](http://blog.sanctum.geek.nz/sync-tmux-panes/)


Resizing Panes

You can also resize panes if you don’t like the layout defaults. I personally rarely need to do this, though it’s handy to know how. Here is the basic syntax to resize panes:

   PREFIX : resize-pane -D (Resizes the current pane down)
   PREFIX : resize-pane -U (Resizes the current pane upward)
   PREFIX : resize-pane -L (Resizes the current pane left)
   PREFIX : resize-pane -R (Resizes the current pane right)
   PREFIX : resize-pane -D 20 (Resizes the current pane down by 20 cells)
   PREFIX : resize-pane -U 20 (Resizes the current pane upward by 20 cells)
   PREFIX : resize-pane -L 20 (Resizes the current pane left by 20 cells)
   PREFIX : resize-pane -R 20 (Resizes the current pane right by 20 cells)
   PREFIX : resize-pane -t 2 20 (Resizes the pane with the id of 2 down by 20 cells)
   PREFIX : resize-pane -t -L 20 (Resizes the pane with the id of 2 left by 20 cells)
   
   

Copy mode:

Pressing PREFIX [ places us in Copy mode. We can then use our movement keys to move our cursor around the screen. By default, the arrow keys work. we set our configuration file to use Vim keys for moving between windows and resizing panes so we wouldn’t have to take our hands off the home row. tmux has a vi mode for working with the buffer as well. To enable it, add this line to .tmux.conf:

   setw -g mode-keys vi

With this option set, we can use h, j, k, and l to move around our buffer.

To get out of Copy mode, we just press the ENTER key. Moving around one character at a time isn’t very efficient. Since we enabled vi mode, we can also use some other visible shortcuts to move around the buffer.

For example, we can use "w" to jump to the next word and "b" to jump back one word. And we can use "f", followed by any character, to jump to that character on the same line, and "F" to jump backwards on the line.

      Function                vi             emacs
      Back to indentation     ^              M-m
      Clear selection         Escape         C-g
      Copy selection          Enter          M-w
      Cursor down             j              Down
      Cursor left             h              Left
      Cursor right            l              Right
      Cursor to bottom line   L
      Cursor to middle line   M              M-r
      Cursor to top line      H              M-R
      Cursor up               k              Up
      Delete entire line      d              C-u
      Delete to end of line   D              C-k
      End of line             $              C-e
      Goto line               :              g
      Half page down          C-d            M-Down
      Half page up            C-u            M-Up
      Next page               C-f            Page down
      Next word               w              M-f
      Paste buffer            p              C-y
      Previous page           C-b            Page up
      Previous word           b              M-b
      Quit mode               q              Escape
      Scroll down             C-Down or J    C-Down
      Scroll up               C-Up or K      C-Up
      Search again            n              n
      Search backward         ?              C-r
      Search forward          /              C-s
      Start of line           0              C-a
      Start selection         Space          C-Space
      Transpose chars                        C-t

Misc

   d  detach
   t  big clock
   ?  list shortcuts
   :  prompt

Configurations Options:

   # Mouse support - set to on if you want to use the mouse
   * setw -g mode-mouse off
   * set -g mouse-select-pane off
   * set -g mouse-resize-pane off
   * set -g mouse-select-window off
   # Set the default terminal mode to 256color mode
   set -g default-terminal "screen-256color"
   # enable activity alerts
   setw -g monitor-activity on
   set -g visual-activity on
   # Center the window list
   set -g status-justify centre
   # Maximize and restore a pane
   unbind Up bind Up new-window -d -n tmp \; swap-pane -s tmp.1 \; select-window -t tmp
   unbind Down
   bind Down last-window \; swap-pane -s tmp.1 \; kill-window -t tmp

Resources:

My .tmux.conf file:

# set shell
set -g default-shell /bin/bash
 
# https://github.com/seebi/tmux-colors-solarized/blob/master/tmuxcolors-256.conf
set-option -g status-bg colour235 #base02
set-option -g status-fg colour136 #yellow
set-option -g status-attr default
 
# set window split
bind-key v split-window -h
bind-key b split-window
 
# default window title colors
set-window-option -g window-status-fg colour244 #base0
set-window-option -g window-status-bg default
#set-window-option -g window-status-attr dim
 
# active window title colors
set-window-option -g window-status-current-fg colour166 #orange
set-window-option -g window-status-current-bg default
#set-window-option -g window-status-current-attr bright
 
# pane border
set-option -g pane-border-fg colour235 #base02
set-option -g pane-active-border-fg colour240 #base01
 
# message text
set-option -g message-bg colour235 #base02
set-option -g message-fg colour166 #orange
 
# pane number display
set-option -g display-panes-active-colour colour33 #blue
set-option -g display-panes-colour colour166 #orange
# clock
set-window-option -g clock-mode-colour green #green
 
 
set -g status-interval 1
set -g status-justify centre # center align window list
set -g status-left-length 20
set -g status-right-length 140
set -g status-left '#[fg=green]#H #[fg=black]• #[fg=green,bright]#(uname -r | cut -c 1-6)#[default]'
set -g status-right '#[fg=green,bg=default,bright]#(tmux-mem-cpu-load 1) #[fg=red,dim,bg=default]#(uptime | cut -f 4-5 -d " " | cut -f 1 -d ",") #[fg=white,bg=default]%a%l:%M:%S %p#[default] #[fg=blue]%Y-%m-%d'
 
 
## show host name and IP address on left side of status bar
#set -g status-left-length 70
#set -g status-left "#[fg=green]: #h : #[fg=brightblue]#(curl icanhazip.com) #[fg=yellow]#(ifconfig en0 | grep 'inet ' | awk '{print \"en0 \" $2}') #(ifconfig en1 | grep 'inet ' | awk '{print \"en1 \" $2}') #[fg=red]#(ifconfig tun0 | grep 'inet ' | awk '{print \"vpn \" $2}') "
## show session name, window & pane number, date and time on right side of
## status bar
#set -g status-right-length 60
#set -g status-right "#[fg=blue]#S #I:#P #[fg=yellow]:: %d %b %Y #[fg=green]:: %l:%M %p :: #(date -u | awk '{print $4}')::"
 
# C-b is not acceptable -- Vim uses it
set-option -g prefix C-a
bind-key C-a send-prefix
 
# Start numbering at 1
set -g base-index 1
 
# Allows for faster key repetition
set -s escape-time 0
 
# Rather than constraining window size to the maximum size of any client
# connected to the *session*, constrain window size to the maximum size of any
# client connected to *that window*. Much more reasonable.
#setw -g aggressive-resize on
 
# Allows us to use C-a a <command> to send commands to a TMUX session inside
# another TMUX session
bind-key a send-prefix
 
# Activity monitoring
setw -g monitor-activity on
set -g visual-activity on
 
# Vi copypaste mode
set-window-option -g mode-keys vi
bind-key -t vi-copy 'v' begin-selection
bind-key -t vi-copy 'y' copy-selection
 
# hjkl pane traversal
bind h select-pane -L
bind j select-pane -D
bind k select-pane -U
bind l select-pane -R
 
bind-key C command-prompt -p "Name of new window: " "new-window -n '%%'"
 
# reload config
bind r source-file ~/.tmux.conf \; display-message "Config reloaded..."
 
# auto window rename
set-window-option -g automatic-rename
 
# rm mouse mode fail
set -g mode-mouse off
 
# color
set -g default-terminal "screen-256color"
 
# status bar
set-option -g status-utf8 on
 
# https://github.com/edkolev/dots/blob/master/tmux.conf
# Updates for tmux 1.9's current pane splitting paths.
if-shell "[[ `tmux -V` == *1.9* ]]" 'unbind c; bind c new-window -c "#{pane_current_path}"'
if-shell "[[ `tmux -V` == *1.9* ]]" 'unbind s; bind s split-window -v -c "#{pane_current_path}"'
if-shell "[[ `tmux -V` == *1.9* ]]" "unbind '\"'; bind '\"' split-window -v -c '#{pane_current_path}'"
if-shell "[[ `tmux -V` == *1.9* ]]" 'unbind v; bind v split-window -h -c "#{pane_current_path}"'
#if-shell "[[ `tmux -V` == *1.9* ]]" 'unbind %; bind % split-window -h -c "#{pane_current_path}"'
 
# quick pane cycling
unbind ^A
bind ^A select-pane :.+